判教

A 判教 (Mandarin [pʰàntɕjàɔ̯], Cantonese [pʰungau̯]) is a ‘doctrinal discernment’ (literally: ‘judgement teaching’). The practice came into natural effect in the 華嚴宗 Huayan School where opposite and incomplete schools of thoughts had to be confronted and hierarchised in a fivefold classification. As a language teacher myself in secular life, I acknowledge the importance for the teacher (and their teachings) to submit to the student’s inquiry and personal discernment. So has to happen for doctrinal teachings. The idea is that understanding reality is a gradual process.

The following is my personal 判教 pànjiào, based on 華嚴宗 Huayan School’s classification. It has no pretention to lecture institutions but rather offers a mapping of relative connectivity with the broad-lined faiths, whatever culture they have been embodied in, or how they have been formulated. Given that truth – if existing – has to be universal, I believe there should be no cultural borders between the traditions in the dialogue about its reality. Added to the fact that I’m a cultural cosmopolite, some of the following texts might not be part of institutional Mahāyāna canons, for it acknowledges both the Huayan classification and the dialogue with authors who might have been unknown by Chinese classical thinkers, or considered as following other traditions. Since they can technically fit in each of the levels and on the agreement that everything is interconnected and that all is in each and each is in all, I see no reason in our global times, to discriminate between teachings that lead to the same conclusions. Thus the list is mapped in accordance with the structure of 法藏 Fazang’s classification and an extendedly inclusive content.

This page can be taken as an official statement of faith in a formal approach, while it needs to be remembered that the Absolute is always above denominations and human-written texts. The content and/or the level of classification of texts may lightly change with time, according to my own progress in understanding the teachings. Also, the content is not exhaustive since it relies on the material I have read only.

Links lead to copies of editions when available online, or book/purchase platforms for reference.


【ROUND TEACHING】

✵ गण्डव्यूह सूत्र Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra (climax of Avataṃsaka Sūtra)

Suzuki & Idzumi Edition – SUZUKI Daisetsu Teitaro and IDZUMI Hokei, Kyoto’s Sanskrit Buddhist Texts Publishing Society, 1934

Digital Sanskrit Buddhist Canon Project Edition – University of the West and Kathmandu’s Nagarjuna Institute

✵ आवतंसक सूत्र Avataṃsaka Sūtra

The Flower Ornament Scripture – English translation by CLEARY Thomas

Avataṃsaka Sūtra – English translation (from Classical Chinese) with commentary by 宣化 Hsuan Hua

大方廣佛華嚴經 Avataṃsaka Sūtra – Chinese version

✵ 梵網經 Brahmajāla Sūtra

梵網經 Brahmajāla Sūtra – English

✵ 法藏 Fazang’s Essential Mysteries of Entering Lankā

Les Mystères essentiels de l’entrée à Lankâ – French translation by Patrick Carré


【SUDDEN TEACHING】

✵ Chuang Tzu

莊子 Tchouang-tseu, Œuvre complète – Complete Zhuangzi in French

Zhuangzi on Chinese Text Project – Bilingual Chinese/English

✵ Rhinoceros Horn

खड्गविषाणसूत्र Khaḍgaviṣāṇasūtra – Pāli

खड्गविषाणसूत्र Khaḍgaviṣāṇasūtra – French

खड्गविषाणसूत्र Khaḍgaviṣāṇasūtra – English


【ADVANCED GREAT VEHICLE】

✵ तथागतगर्भसूत्र Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra

तथागतगर्भसूत्र Tathāgatagarbha Sūtra – English

✵ 大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經 Mahāvairocana Tantra

大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經 Mahāvairocana Tantra – English translation by Stephen Hodge


【BASIC GREAT VEHICLE】

✵ Πλάτωνος Φαῖδρος Plato’s Phaedrus

Πλάτωνος Φαῖδρος – Classical Greek

Phèdre de Platon – French

Plato’s Phaedrus – English

✵ 大乘起信論 Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna

大乘起信論 Awakening of Faith in the Mahāyāna – English translation by SUZUKI Daisetsu Teitaro


【SMALL VEHICLE】

✵ Ἡράκλειτος Heraclitus’ Fragments

Ἡράκλειτος Heraclitus Fragments – Trilingual (Classical Greek, French and English)

✵ Ἐκκλησιαστής Ecclesiastes

Ἐκκλησιαστής Ecclesiastes – Septuagint Greek